[Free] 2018(Aug) Dumps4cert CompTIA JK0-022 Dumps with VCE and PDF Download 631-640

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CompTIA Academic/E2C Security Certification Exam Voucher Only

Question No: 631 – (Topic 3)

The Chief Technology Officer (CTO) wants to improve security surrounding storage of customer passwords.

The company currently stores passwords as SHA hashes. Which of the following can the CTO implement requiring the LEAST change to existing systems?

  1. Smart cards

  2. TOTP

  3. Key stretching

  4. Asymmetric keys

Answer: A Explanation:

Smart cards usually come in two forms. The most common takes the form of a rectangular piece of plastic with an embedded microchip. The second is as a USB token. It contains a built in processor and has the ability to securely store and process information. A quot;contactquot; smart card communicates with a PC using a smart card reader whereas a quot;contactlessquot; card sends encrypted information via radio waves to the PC.

Typical scenarios in which smart cards are used include interactive logon, e-mail signing, e-mail decryption and remote access authentication. However, smart cards are programmable and can contain programs and data for many different applications. For example smart cards may be used to store medical histories for use in emergencies, to make electronic cash payments or to verify the identity of a customer to an e-retailer.

Microsoft provides two device independent APIs to insulate application developers from differences between current and future implementations: CryptoAPI and Microsoft Win32庐 SCard APIs.

The Cryptography API contains functions that allow applications to encrypt or digitally sign data in a flexible manner, while providing protection for the user#39;s sensitive private key data. All cryptographic operations are performed by independent modules known as cryptographic service providers (CSPs).

There are many different cryptographic algorithms and even when implementing the same algorithm there are many choices to make about key sizes and padding for example. For this reason, CSPs are grouped into types, in which each supported CryptoAPI function, by default, performs in a way particular to that type. For example, CSPs in the PROV_DSS provider type support DSS Signatures and MD5 and SHA hashing.

Question No: 632 – (Topic 3)

Joe, an employee is taking a taxi through a busy city and starts to receive unsolicited files sent to his Smartphone. Which of the following is this an example of?

  1. Vishing

  2. Bluejacking

  3. War Driving

  4. SPIM

  5. Bluesnarfing

Answer: B Explanation:

Bluejacking is the sending of unsolicited messages over Bluetooth to Bluetooth-enabled devices such as mobile phones, PDAs or laptop computers, sending a vCard which typically contains a message in the name field (i.e., for bluedating or bluechat) to another Bluetooth-enabled device via the OBEX protocol.

Bluetooth has a very limited range, usually around 10 metres (32.8 ft) on mobile phones, but laptops can reach up to 100 metres (328 ft) with powerful (Class 1) transmitters.

Bluejacking is usually harmless, but because bluejacked people generally don#39;t know what has happened, they may think that their phone is malfunctioning. Usually, a bluejacker will only send a text message, but with modern phones it#39;s possible to send images or sounds as well. Bluejacking has been used in guerrilla marketing campaigns to promote advergames.

Question No: 633 – (Topic 3)

Which of the following protocols is vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks by NOT using end to end TLS encryption?

  1. HTTPS

  2. WEP

  3. WPA

  4. WPA 2

Answer: B Explanation:

WEP offers no end-to-end TLS encryption.

The WEP process consists of a series of steps as follows: The wireless client sends an authentication request.

The Access Point (AP) sends an authentication response containing clear-text (uh-oh!) challenge text.

The client takes the challenge text received and encrypts it using a static WEP key. The client sends the encrypted authentication packet to the AP.

The AP encrypts the challenge text using its own static WEP key and compares the result to the authentication packet sent by the client. If the results match, the AP begins the association process for the wireless client.

The big issue with WEP is the fact that it is very susceptible to a Man in the Middle attack. The attacker captures the clear-text challenge and then the authentication packet reply.

The attacker then reverses the RC4 encryption in order to derive the static WEP key. Yikes!

As you might guess, the designers attempted to strengthen WEP using the approach of key lengths. The native Windows client supported a 104-bit key as opposed to the initial 40-bit key. The fundamental weaknesses in the WEP process still remained however.

Question No: 634 – (Topic 3)

Which of the following assessment techniques would a security administrator implement to ensure that systems and software are developed properly?

  1. Baseline reporting

  2. Input validation

  3. Determine attack surface

  4. Design reviews

Answer: D Explanation:

When implementing systems and software, an important step is the design of the systems and software. The systems and software should be designed to ensure that the system works as intended and is secure.

The design review assessment examines the ports and protocols used, the rules, segmentation, and access control in the system or application. A design review is basically a check to ensure that the design of the system meets the security requirements.

Question No: 635 – (Topic 3)

What is a system that is intended or designed to be broken into by an attacker?

  1. Honeypot

  2. Honeybucket

  3. Decoy

  4. Spoofing system

Answer: A Explanation:

A honeypot is a system whose purpose it is to be attacked. An administrator can watch and study the attack to research current attack methodologies.

According to the Wepopedia.com, a Honeypot luring a hacker into a system has several main purposes:

The administrator can watch the hacker exploit the vulnerabilities of the system, thereby learning where the system has weaknesses that need to be redesigned.

The hacker can be caught and stopped while trying to obtain root access to the system.

By studying the activities of hackers, designers can better create more secure systems that are potentially invulnerable to future hackers.

There are two main types of honeypots:

Production – A production honeypot is one used within an organization#39;s environment to

help mitigate risk.

Research – A research honeypot add value to research in computer security by providing a platform to study the threat.

Question No: 636 – (Topic 3)

After analyzing and correlating activity from multiple sensors, the security administrator has determined that a group of very well organized individuals from an enemy country is responsible for various attempts to breach the company network, through the use of very sophisticated and targeted attacks. Which of the following is this an example of?

  1. Privilege escalation

  2. Advanced persistent threat

  3. Malicious insider threat

  4. Spear phishing

Answer: B Explanation:

Definitions of precisely what an APT is can vary widely, but can best be summarized by their named requirements:

Advanced – Criminal operators behind the threat utilize the full spectrum of computer intrusion technologies and techniques. While individual components of the attack may not be classed as particularly “advanced” (e.g. malware components generated from commonly available DIY construction kits, or the use of easily procured exploit materials), their operators can typically access and develop more advanced tools as required. They combine multiple attack methodologies and tools in order to reach and compromise their target.

Persistent – Criminal operators give priority to a specific task, rather than opportunistically seeking immediate financial gain. This distinction implies that the attackers are guided by external entities. The attack is conducted through continuous monitoring and interaction in order to achieve the defined objectives. It does not mean a barrage of constant attacks and malware updates. In fact, a “low-and-slow” approach is usually more successful.

Threat – means that there is a level of coordinated human involvement in the attack, rather than a mindless and automated piece of code. The criminal operators have a specific objective and are skilled, motivated, organized and well funded.

Question No: 637 – (Topic 3)

Which of the following is an example of a false positive?

  1. Anti-virus identifies a benign application as malware.

  2. A biometric iris scanner rejects an authorized user wearing a new contact lens.

  3. A user account is locked out after the user mistypes the password too many times.

  4. The IDS does not identify a buffer overflow.

Answer: A Explanation:

A false positive is an error in some evaluation process in which a condition tested for is mistakenly found to have been detected.

In spam filters, for example, a false positive is a legitimate message mistakenly marked as UBE -unsolicited bulk email, as junk email is more formally known. Messages that are determined to be spam – whether correctly or incorrectly – may be rejected by a server or client-side spam filter and returned to the sender as bounce e-mail.

One problem with many spam filtering tools is that if they are configured stringently enough to be effective, there is a fairly high chance of getting false positives. The risk of accidentally blocking an important message has been enough to deter many companies from implementing any anti-spam measures at all.

False positives are also common in security systems. A host intrusion prevention system (HIPS), for example, looks for anomalies, such as deviations in bandwidth, protocols and ports. When activity varies outside of an acceptable range – for example, a remote application attempting to open a normally closed port – an intrusion may be in progress. However, an anomaly, such as a sudden spike in bandwidth use, does not guarantee an actual attack, so this approach amounts to an educated guess and the chance for false positives can be high.

False positives contrast with false negatives, which are results indicating mistakenly that some condition tested for is absent.

Topic 4, Application, Data and Host Security

Question No: 638 – (Topic 4)

Which of the following provides dedicated hardware-based cryptographic functions to an operating system and its applications running on laptops and desktops?

  1. TPM

  2. HSM

  3. CPU

  4. FPU

Answer: A Explanation:

Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is a hardware-based encryption solution that is embedded in the system’s motherboard and is enabled or disable in BIOS. It helps with hash key generation and stores cryptographic keys, passwords, or certificates.

Question No: 639 – (Topic 4)

A company wants to ensure that all aspects if data are protected when sending to other sites within the enterprise. Which of the following would ensure some type of encryption is performed while data is in transit?

  1. SSH

  2. SHA1

  3. TPM

  4. MD5

Answer: C Explanation:

Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is a hardware-based encryption solution that is embedded in the system’s motherboard and is enabled or disable in BIOS. It helps with hash key generation and stores cryptographic keys, passwords, or certificates.

Question No: 640 – (Topic 4)

A periodic update that corrects problems in one version of a product is called a

  1. Hotfix

  2. Overhaul

  3. Service pack

  4. Security update

Answer: C Explanation:

A service pack is a collection of updates and hotfixes that address a number of software issues, as well as new software features. It is released periodically by the vendor.

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