[Free] 2018(Aug) Dumps4cert CompTIA JK0-022 Dumps with VCE and PDF Download 451-460

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CompTIA Academic/E2C Security Certification Exam Voucher Only

Question No: 451 – (Topic 3)

During an anonymous penetration test, Jane, a system administrator, was able to identify a shared print spool directory, and was able to download a document from the spool. Which statement BEST describes her privileges?

  1. All users have write access to the directory.

  2. Jane has read access to the file.

  3. All users have read access to the file.

  4. Jane has read access to the directory.

Answer: C Explanation:

The question states that Jane was able to download a document from the spool directory. To view and download the document, Jane must have at least Read access to the file. The fact that the document belonged to someone else suggests that all users have read access to the file.

Question No: 452 – (Topic 3)

Sara, an attacker, is recording a person typing in their ID number into a keypad to gain access to the building. Sara then calls the helpdesk and informs them that their PIN no longer works and would like to change it. Which of the following attacks occurred LAST?

  1. Phishing

  2. Shoulder surfing

  3. Impersonation

  4. Tailgating

Answer: C Explanation:

Two attacks took place in this question. The first attack was shoulder surfing. This was the act of Sara recording a person typing in their ID number into a keypad to gain access to the building.

The second attack was impersonation. Sara called the helpdesk and used the PIN to impersonate the person she recorded.

Question No: 453 – (Topic 3)

Physical documents must be incinerated after a set retention period is reached. Which of the following attacks does this action remediate?

  1. Shoulder Surfing

  2. Dumpster Diving

  3. Phishing

  4. Impersonation

Answer: B Explanation:

Incinerating documents (or shredding documents) instead of throwing them into a bin will prevent people being able to read the documents to view sensitive information.

Dumpster diving is looking for treasure in someone else#39;s trash. (A dumpster is a large trash container.) In the world of information technology, dumpster diving is a technique used to retrieve information that could be used to carry out an attack on a computer network. Dumpster diving isn#39;t limited to searching through the trash for obvious treasures like access codes or passwords written down on sticky notes. Seemingly innocent information like a phone list, calendar, or organizational chart can be used to assist an attacker using social engineering techniques to gain access to the network. To prevent dumpster divers from learning anything valuable from your trash, experts recommend that your company establish a disposal policy where all paper, including print-outs, is shredded in a cross-cut shredder before being recycled, all storage media is erased, and all staff is educated about the danger of untracked trash.

Question No: 454 – (Topic 3)

Which of the following is BEST utilized to identify common misconfigurations throughout the enterprise?

  1. Vulnerability scanning

  2. Port scanning

  3. Penetration testing

  4. Black box

Answer: A Explanation:

A vulnerability scan is the process of scanning the network and/or I.T. infrastructure for threats and vulnerabilities. The threats and vulnerabilities are then evaluated in a risk assessment and the necessary actions taken to resolve and vulnerabilities. A vulnerability scan scans for known weaknesses such as missing patches or security updates.

A vulnerability scan is the automated process of proactively identifying security

vulnerabilities of computing systems in a network in order to determine if and where a system can be exploited and/or threatened. While public servers are important for communication and data transfer over the Internet, they open the door to potential security breaches by threat agents, such as malicious hackers.

Vulnerability scanning employs software that seeks out security flaws based on a database of known flaws, testing systems for the occurrence of these flaws and generating a report of the findings that an individual or an enterprise can use to tighten the network#39;s security.

Question No: 455 – (Topic 3)

A victim is logged onto a popular home router forum site in order to troubleshoot some router configuration issues. The router is a fairly standard configuration and has an IP address of The victim is logged into their router administrative interface in one tab and clicks a forum link in another tab. Due to clicking the forum link, the home router reboots. Which of the following attacks MOST likely occurred?

  1. Brute force password attack

  2. Cross-site request forgery

  3. Cross-site scripting

  4. Fuzzing

Answer: B Explanation:

Cross-Site Request Forgery-also known as XSRF, session riding, and one-click attack-involves unauthorized commands coming from a trusted user to the website. This is often done without the user’s knowledge, and it employs some type of social networking to pull it off. For example, assume that Evan and Spencer are chatting through Facebook. Spencer sends Evan a link to what he purports is a funny video that will crack him up. Evan clicks the link, but it actually brings up Evan’s bank account information in another browser tab, takes a screenshot of it, closes the tab, and sends the information to Spencer. The reason the attack is possible is because Evan is a trusted user with his own bank. In order for it to work, Evan would need to have recently accessed that bank’s website and have a cookie that had yet to expire. The best protection against cross-site scripting is to disable the running of scripts (and browser profi les).

Question No: 456 – (Topic 3)

Which of the following controls would allow a company to reduce the exposure of sensitive systems from unmanaged devices on internal networks?

A. 802.1x

  1. Data encryption

  2. Password strength

  3. BGP

Answer: A Explanation:

IEEE 802.1X (also known as Dot1x) is an IEEE Standard for Port-based Network Access Control (PNAC). It is part of the IEEE 802.1 group of networking protocols. It provides an authentication mechanism to devices wishing to attach to a LAN or WLAN.

802.1X authentication involves three parties: a supplicant, an authenticator, and an authentication server. The supplicant is a client device (such as a laptop) that wishes to attach to the LAN/WLAN – though the term #39;supplicant#39; is also used interchangeably to refer to the software running on the client that provides credentials to the authenticator. The authenticator is a network device, such as an Ethernet switch or wireless access point; and the authentication server is typically a host running software supporting the RADIUS and EAP protocols.

The authenticator acts like a security guard to a protected network. The supplicant (i.e., client device) is not allowed access through the authenticator to the protected side of the network until the supplicant’s identity has been validated and authorized. An analogy to this is providing a valid visa at the airport#39;s arrival immigration before being allowed to enter the country. With 802.1X port-based authentication, the supplicant provides credentials, such as user name/password or digital certificate, to the authenticator, and the authenticator forwards the credentials to the authentication server for verification. If the authentication server determines the credentials are valid, the supplicant (client device) is allowed to access resources located on the protected side of the network.

Question No: 457 – (Topic 3)

A user, Ann, is reporting to the company IT support group that her workstation screen is blank other than a window with a message requesting payment or else her hard drive will be formatted. Which of the following types of malware is on Ann’s workstation?

  1. Trojan

  2. Spyware

  3. Adware

  4. Ransomware

Answer: D Explanation:

Ransomware is a type of malware which restricts access to the computer system that it infects, and demands a ransom paid to the creator(s) of the malware in order for the restriction to be removed. Some forms of ransomware encrypt files on the system#39;s hard drive), while some may simply lock the system and display messages intended to coax the user into paying.

Ransomware typically propagates as a trojan like a conventional computer worm, entering a system through, for example, a downloaded file or a vulnerability in a network service.

The program will then run a payload: such as one that will begin to encrypt personal files on the hard drive. More sophisticated ransomware may hybrid-encrypt the victim#39;s plaintext with a random symmetric key and a fixed public key. The malware author is the only party that knows the needed private decryption key. Some ransomware payloads do not use encryption. In these cases, the payload is simply an application designed to restrict interaction with the system, typically by setting the Windows Shell to itself, or even modifying the master boot record and/or partition table (which prevents the operating system from booting at all until it is repaired)

Ransomware payloads utilize elements of scareware to extort money from the system#39;s user. The payload may, for example, display notices purportedly issued by companies or law enforcement agencies which falsely claim that the system had been used for illegal activities, or contains illegal content such as pornography and pirated software or media. Some ransomware payloads imitate Windows’ product activation notices, falsely claiming that their computer#39;s Windows installation is counterfeit or requires re-activation. These tactics coax the user into paying the malware#39;s author to remove the ransomware, either by supplying a program which can decrypt the files, or by sending an unlock code that undoes the changes the payload has made.

Question No: 458 – (Topic 3)

Which of the following would BEST deter an attacker trying to brute force 4-digit PIN numbers to access an account at a bank teller machine?

  1. Account expiration settings

  2. Complexity of PIN

  3. Account lockout settings

  4. PIN history requirements

Answer: C Explanation:

Account lockout settings determine the number of failed login attempts before the account gets locked and how long the account will be locked out for. For example, an account can be configured to lock if three incorrect passwords (or in this case PIN’s) are entered. The account can then be configured to automatically unlock after a period of time or stay locked until someone manually unlocks it.

Question No: 459 – (Topic 3)

The Chief Information Officer (CIO) receives an anonymous threatening message that says “beware of the 1st of the year”. The CIO suspects the message may be from a former disgruntled employee planning an attack.

Which of the following should the CIO be concerned with?

  1. Smurf Attack

  2. Trojan

  3. Logic bomb

  4. Virus

Answer: C Explanation:

A logic bomb is a piece of code intentionally inserted into a software system that will set off a malicious function when specified conditions are met. For example, a programmer may hide a piece of code that starts deleting files should they ever be terminated from the company.

Software that is inherently malicious, such as viruses and worms, often contain logic bombs that execute a certain payload at a pre-defined time or when some other condition is met. This technique can be used by a virus or worm to gain momentum and spread before being noticed. Some viruses attack their host systems on specific dates, such as Friday the 13th or April Fool#39;s Day. Trojans that activate on certain dates are often called quot;time bombsquot;.

To be considered a logic bomb, the payload should be unwanted and unknown to the user of the software. As an example, trial programs with code that disables certain functionality after a set time are not normally regarded as logic bombs.

Question No: 460 – (Topic 3)

Which of the following can be used by a security administrator to successfully recover a user’s forgotten password on a password protected file?

  1. Cognitive password

  2. Password sniffing

  3. Brute force

  4. Social engineering

Answer: C Explanation:

One way to recover a user’s forgotten password on a password protected file is to guess it. A brute force attack is an automated attempt to open the file by using many different passwords.

A brute force attack is a trial-and-error method used to obtain information such as a user password or personal identification number (PIN). In a brute force attack, automated software is used to generate a large number of consecutive guesses as to the value of the desired data. Brute force attacks may be used by criminals to crack encrypted data, or by security analysts to test an organization#39;s network security.

A brute force attack may also be referred to as brute force cracking.

For example, a form of brute force attack known as a dictionary attack might try all the words in a dictionary. Other forms of brute force attack might try commonly-used passwords or combinations of letters and numbers.

An attack of this nature can be time- and resource-consuming. Hence the name quot;brute force attack;quot; success is usually based on computing power and the number of combinations tried rather than an ingenious algorithm.

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